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六肖中特期期准十码:我國司法實踐中的司法規律探究

時間:2017-07-07 來源:未知 作者:范編輯 本文字數:8878字

六肖中特免费公开109 www.cffyz.icu   “司法規律”在 2016 年最高人民法院院長的工作報告中出現,引起司法理論和實務界的關注?;毓宋夜嗄甑乃痙ㄊ導梢苑⑾治頤塹乃痙üぷ髂巖勻〉貿ばЫ?,滿足老百姓對于司法公正的需求的一個原因就在于我們的司法實踐長期忽視司法規律,特別是誤把行政規律應用到司法當中。正是在這樣的背景下,本論文希望通過探討司法規律認識論的相關問題,引起人們對司法規律的關注,深化對司法規律的理解,為當前的司法改革提供理論上的依據,推動司法改革的完成,促進司法公正的實現。
  
  論文首先就具備怎樣的條件才能認識司法規律做了闡述。司法規律應該分為兩個層次去理解:第一是哲學上的規律,第二是司法過程中的規律。馬克思主義哲學認為,規律就是事物之間內在的聯系。具有普適性和決定性。不止是自然界有規律,社會生活當中也有規律。社會規律貫穿于社會歷史的發展當中。社會規律也一樣是客觀的。規律的客觀性并不意味著人們對它無能為力,人作為社會主體,可以充分發揮自己的主觀能動性,通過實踐認識、發現和總結規律。司法活動是一種社會實踐活動,其中必然蘊含著規律。對于如何認識司法規律,筆者提出兩點:司法規律是司法活動的科學依據以及對司法規律的認識和遵循有助于我們避免司法主觀主義的傾向。筆者在其中對于司法規律與相關概念做了區分,如司法本質、司法原則、司法理念。司法規律是客觀而普遍的,但是實現司法規律的形式卻是多樣的,兩者不應該被混為一談。
  
  論文第二章提出司法規律的認知可以解釋司法發展中的所有問題,因為司法規律反映法律運行的基本內涵。我們現在的司法改革中的所有舉措都可以用司法規律進行解釋。司法規律有其自身的基本屬性。這些屬性體現在三方面:首先,司法必須反映國家政體的特點。司法不是空中樓閣,它必然存在于一國的政治制度當中。我國是人民代表大會制度的政體,司法產生并運行在其中,必然會展現出與之相匹配的特性。其次,司法必須伴隨社會的發展而變遷。司法是在社會中運行的,它會隨著社會政治、經濟、文化的變化而發展,最明顯的體現就反映在司法制度和司法理念當中。最后,司法必須體現司法權的本質屬性。司法權的本質屬性就是判斷。這就要求法官要居中裁判,不偏不倚。只有做到這一點,司法才能實現其自身的價值。在司法規律的價值體現方面,也有三點:首先,司法必須反映人民主權意旨的最高追求。司法權雖說是一種國家權力,但是歸根到底是來源于人民的意志。人民授權司法機關行使對糾紛的判斷權。這也是司法權的正當性來源?;詿?,司法權就不能成為與人民主權意旨絕緣的壟斷性權力。它的價值追求必須是與社會公眾的價值追求相一致的。其次,司法運行機制正當才能使得司法權科學運行。長期以來,我國訴訟尤其是刑事訴訟中出現的“偵查中心主義”使得法院審判的地位在偵查起訴審判的訴訟流程中弱化甚至形式化,司法運行機制不當。司法判斷權在整個訴訟中占據主導地位才能真正體現司法判斷權的本質。偵查權本質上是一種行政權,如果由其主導訴訟,控辯雙方就不可能對等,訴訟結構就會失去平衡,公民的正當訴訟權利就被剝奪,甚至人權受到侵害。司法保障人權的功能也被架空。本次改革中,強調以審判為中心,可以有效遏制這一狀況。糾正公檢法三機關長期的分工制約不足,而配合過度的局面。在司法機制正當運行方面,還應該保障律師的權利。律師在訴訟中的權利落到實處,有合理有效的救濟途徑才能更好地實現控辯雙方的平衡,才能使得訴訟程序公正中立。對于司法機關內部,正確處理好合議庭與審判委員會、院庭長之間的關系也是保障司法權科學運行的重要因素。所謂正確的處理,其實就是去行政化,讓屬于司法的規律回歸到司法活動中去。最后,司法裁判者需要對審判結果負責。只有用制度的手段要求司法者對于自己的裁判負責,才能促使司法者更加謹慎地用權,增加司法者的擔當意識,更好地實現司法公正。而要想實現這樣的目標,必須制定出配套的一系列制度,真正落實“審理者裁判,裁判者負責”.
  
  論文第三章提出了對司法規律評價的認識論標準。我們對司法規律評價的認識論標準是:司法的發展是否符合合理性、進步性以及科學性的標準。這其中分為一般性的標準和符合中國國情的特殊司法規律。筆者認為,司法一般屬性的規律檢驗標準分為職業性、獨立性、中立性、公正性、公開性以及最終裁判性。司法的職業性是法治文明發展的必然產物。這與其自身的復雜性和抽象性也密不可分。作為裁判者的法官,不僅需要掌握系統的法律知識,還需要熟練的專業技能、豐富的社會經歷。追求司法的職業性是為了更好地實現司法為民。司法只有與其他權力分立,在一定限度內獨立運行,才能保證其結果的公正。司法權是國家權力中比較弱勢的權力,因為它本身既無軍權又無財權,只是判斷。其判斷結果的強制執行甚至還需要行政權的幫助。但如果其不能獨立運行,受其他權力、勢力或者個人的干擾,那么它就失去了自身存在的意義和價值。司法的獨立性在現代法治國家均得到承認和遵循。司法是一種保守的活動。它只能針對已經存在并且當事人提交到法院的糾紛進行判斷。司法必須是克制的。除了程序啟動的被動性外,在裁判過程中,它也必須是中立而對雙方當事人沒有任何偏見的。當然,傳統的司法克制主義思想,使得司法審判程序過分受到法律約束或者判決過于僵化,從而使法官的能動積極性得不到充分發揮。因而也應該要求法官在審判案件時,能夠表現出積極主動的主觀姿態,對社會公眾的司法需求作出積極的回應,實現司法公正,促進社會公平、保障人性尊嚴。司法所追尋的最終目的價值是公正。為實現司法公正,必須司法公開。司法公開,可以使得司法者不敢濫用職權,可以排除外部勢力對司法的干預,更使得當事人和民眾可以看見正義被實現的過程。司法是公權力保障下的糾紛解決機制。只有其具備終局性,糾紛才能夠被解決,否則,糾紛將陷入無休止的狀態,社會必會混亂而不穩定。對于中國特色的司法規律,筆者認為這是司法規律在中國的實現形式。堅持“三個至上”理念是對我國司法意識形態規律的遵循。我國是社會主義國家,一切權力屬于人民,這需要在黨的領導下實現。而要達到這樣的目標,必須堅持依法治國。堅持人大監督的理念是對我國司法權發展的規律性認識。堅持司法服務大局理念是對我國社會發展特性的認識。我國處于并將長期處于社會主義初級階段,經濟的飛速發展使得社會矛盾也變得更加劇烈。司法必須能夠實現其社會價值,體現其社會功能才能夠真正實現其存在的價值意義。

    論文最后得出結論,一切從實際出發,按客觀規律辦事,是馬克思主義的基本觀點。“司法規律”不再是一個單純的學術概念,它已經成為中央推動司法改革的哲學層面的指導理論了。當前我們的司法改革需要貫徹落實十八屆四中全會的法治精神,順應人民群眾對司法公正、權益保障、社會穩定的新期待,積極推進公正司法、實現法治。在司法權運行和司法實踐的過程中,掌握司法規律這種特殊的社會認識活動的邏輯結構,可以為司法改革發展趨勢提供深層次的理論依據,促進公正司法,樹立司法權威,讓人民群眾在司法個案中體會到公平正義,從而推動社會公正的實現。
  
  [關鍵詞] 司法改革; 司法規律; 司法活動; 科學依據。、
  
  “Judicial law” in 2016 appeared in the work report of the supreme people'scourt justice attracts the attention of the judicial theory and practice. Judicial practicein our country is difficult to obtain long-term development and meet the needs ofordinary people to justice in the long term.One reason of it is that we neglect justicerule, especially applied the administrative law to the justice. This thesis hopes toexplore the judicial rules related questions of epistemology, pay more attention to thejudicial laws, deepen the understanding of the law of justice, providing theoreticalbasis for the current judicial reform, promoting judicial reform, promote therealization of judicial justice.
  
  First of all I write have to meet the conditions of judicial law in this paper.Judicial rules should be divided into two levels to understand: the first is the law ofphilosophy and the second is the law in the judicial process. Marxist philosophybelieves that law is the inherent relationship between things. Not only the nature haslaw,but also the social life has law too. Social law is objective as well. Theobjectivity of the law does not mean that people can do noting with it, people cangive full play to their own subjective initiative, understanding, discovery, andsummarize the rule through practice. Judicial activity is a kind of social practiceactivities, which inevitably contains the rule. For how to realize the judicial rules, theauthor puts forward two points: the judicial law is the scientific basis of the judicialactivity and to understand the judicial law and follow the tendency of help us toavoid the judicial subjectivism. In which the author with the law of justice diddistinguish with the related concepts, such as judicial nature, legal principle, judicialphilosophy. Judicial law is objective and universal, but their judicial rules form isvaried, the two should not be confused.
  
  Paper believes that judicial law can explain all the measures in the judicialreform,because the judicial law reflects the fundamental connotation of legaloperation. The judicial rules reflect its basic attribute. These properties are embodiedin three aspects: first, justice must reflect the characteristics of the body politic.Justice is not a castle in the air, it must exist in a country's political system. Ourcountry is people's congress system of government, judicial produced and run inthem, it should match the feature. Second, the justice must be accompanied by thedevelopment of society and change. Justice is running in the society, it will be as thechange of social politics, economy, culture and development, the most obvious isembodied in the judicial system and judicial philosophy. At last, the jurisdiction mustreflect the essential attribute of judicature. The essence of judicial power attribute isthe judge. This requires judicial centered to the referee, impartial. Only do this, thejustice to realize the value of its own. In terms of the law of justice value, also hasthree points: first, the highest pursuit of justice must reflect the people's sovereigntyintention. Judicial power is a kind of state power, but in the final analysis is derivedfrom the will of the people. The people authorize judicial organs to exercisejudgment of disputes. This is also the legitimacy of judicial power source. Based onthis, judicial power can't be with the people's sovereignty will insulation ofmonopoly power. The value pursuit of it must be consistent with the value pursuit ofthe public. Second, the operation mechanism of judicial jurisdiction as to make thescientific operation. Finally, the judicial judge need to responsible for the result ofthe trial. Only by means of system requirements judicial responsibility for yourreferee, can urge the judicial person more cautiously unavailability, increase thejudicial person acts as a consciousness, a better implementation of justice. Toachieve such a goal, it is necessary to formulate supporting a series of system, trulyimplement the “judge should be responsible for his trial”.Paper in the third chapter puts forward the epistemology of judicial ruleevaluation standard. Evaluation standard of epistemology is: law of the judicialjustice is in line with the development of rationality, progressive and scientificstandards. It is divided into general standard and special judicial rules which accordswith the situation of China. The author thinks that, the general properties of regularinspection standards into occupational, independence, objectivity, impartiality andopenness, and ultimately the referee. The judicial professional with its owncomplexity and abstract are inseparable. As the judge, not only need to master thesystem of legal knowledge, but also need skilled professional skills, rich socialexperience. In addition, in view of the theory about legal professional will legalmonopoly in the hands of a certain group, conflict with judicial democracy ofdiscussion, the author made a negative answer. Judicial professional does notexclude the judicial democracy, on the contrary, the pursuit of justice is professionalin order to better achieve justice for the people. Only with other separation of powers,judicial independence within limits, to guarantee the impartiality of the result.Judicial power is the power of the weak in the state power, because it itself neithersword nor purse strings, just judgment. The judgment result of enforcement evenneed the help of executive power. But if it can't run independently, interference byother power, power, or individual, so it loses its meaning and value of existence. Forsociety, judicial injustice can also lead to serious consequences. Judicialindependence in the modern country under the rule of law are recognized and follow.Justice is the activity of a conservative. It can only be in view of the existingdisputes and the parties submit to the court for judgment. Justice must be restrained.Besides program launched in passivity, in the process of the referee, it must also beneutral to both parties without any prejudice. The ultimate goal of judicial offices topursue value is justice. To achieve judicial justice, to the judicial public. Judicialpublic, can make the judicial person dare not abuse of power, can eliminate externalforces of judicial intervention, more make the parties and people can see the processof justice is implemented. Justice is by public power under the guarantee of thedispute settlement mechanism. Only the finality, the dispute can be solved, otherwise,disputes will fall into a state of constant, society will be chaos and instability. Forjudicial law with Chinese characteristics, the author thinks that this is the order ofthe judicial realization forms in China. Adhere to the “three supreme” is the idea oflaw of our country judicial ideology to follow. China is a socialist country, all powerbelongs to the people, this be achieved under the leadership of the party. And toachieve this goal, we must insist on governing the country according to law. Stick tothe idea of National People's Congress supervision is regular rules of judicial powerdevelopment in our country. Adhere to the judicial service overall concept is theunderstanding of the social development of our country characteristics. Our countryis in and the primary stage of socialism for a long time, the rapid development ofeconomy makes the social contradictions have become more severe. Justice must beable to realize its social value, and demonstrate its social function to realize the valueof its existence meaning.
  
  Paper finally concludes that “law of justice” is no longer a pure academicconcept, it has become central to promote judicial reform the directing theory for thephilosophical level. We need to carry out in our current judicial reform.China isactively promoting justice reform in China. In the process of judicial poweroperation and judicial practice, master the law of judicial logic structure of this kindof special social cognition activities, can provide deep theoretical basis for judicialreform development trend, promote the fair and justice, establish judicial authority,and make the people realize fairness and justice in the judicial cases, so as topromote the realization of social justice.
  
  [Key words] Judicial Reform; Judicial Law; Judicial Act; ScientificBasis

目 錄

導 言...................................................................................................1
一、問題的提出..............................................................................................1
二、研究價值及意義......................................................................................2
三、文獻綜述..................................................................................................3
四、主要研究方法..........................................................................................6
五、論文結構..................................................................................................6
六、論文主要創新及不足..............................................................................9
第一章 司法規律認識的基本條件 ........................................................10
第一節 用馬克思主義科學觀去認識規律.........................................................10
一、社會規律貫穿在社會歷史之中............................................................10
二、從社會發展中去認識、發現和總結規律............................................11
第二節 認識司法規律的目的和作用.................................................................12
一、司法規律是司法活動的科學依據........................................................12
二、司法規律的認知有助于我們避免司法主觀主義傾向........................15
第二章 司法規律可以解釋司法發展中的所有問題............................17
第一節 司法規律體現法的基本屬性.................................................................17
一、司法體制蘊含國家政體特點的規律....................................................17
二、司法伴隨社會的發展而變遷的規律....................................................19
三、司法體現司法權本質屬性的規律........................................................22
第二節 司法規律反映法的基本內涵.................................................................23
一、司法本質上反映主權者意旨的最高追求............................................24
二、司法過程反映審判運行機制的科學規律............................................25
三、法官責任制是司法規律的題中之義....................................................27
第三章 對司法規律評價的認識論標準 ................................................30
第一節 具有一般屬性的規律性判斷標準.........................................................30
一、是否體現司法職業化的規律性要求....................................................30
二、是否體現司法獨立的規律性要求........................................................31
三、是否體現司法克制的規律性要求........................................................33
四、是否體現司法公正的規律性要求........................................................35
五、是否體現司法公開性的規律性要求....................................................37
六、是否體現司法最終裁判性的規律性要求............................................39
第二節 對中國特色司法規律的認知與堅守.....................................................41
一、“三個至上”理念是對中國特色司法制度的規律性認識................41
二、人大監督是對中國特色司法權發展的規律性認識............................42
三、司法服務顧全大局是對中國特色司法發展道路的認識....................44
四、社會效果與法律效果相統一是對中國司法權屬性的認識................46
結 語...................................................................................................49
參考文獻...................................................................................................50
在讀期間發表的學術論文與研究成果 ..................................................58
后 記...................................................................................................59

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